Represent a range of values

07 March 2004

This is part of the Further Enterprise Application Architecture development writing that I was doing in the mid 2000’s. Sadly too many other things have claimed my attention since, so I haven’t had time to work on them further, nor do I see much time in the foreseeable future. As such this material is very much in draft form and I won’t be doing any corrections or updates until I’m able to find time to work on it again.

It's quite common to see comparisons where a value is checked against a range of values. Ranges are usually handled by a pair of values and you check against them both. Range instead uses a single object to represent the range as a whole, and then provides the relevant operations to test to see if values fall in the range and to compare ranges.

How it Works

The basic class is very simple. You have a class with two fields that represent the start and end of the range. You also provide an includes method that tests to see if the supplied value falls within the range.

You can use Range with any type that supports comparison operations, that is the moral equivalent of <, >, =, <=, and >=. Depending on the language and the type you may or may not get these exact operators, but you need the equivalent relationships on the types, that is you need to have some default sort criteria that allows you to rank the values.

Figure 1: Showing ranges in UML with parameterized type notation

Range is an obvious choice for a parameterized class Figure 1, if your language supports this. In UML terms you can show ranges of different kinds by using classes with types Range<number> and Range<date>. This is really just modeling shorthand for Range of Numbers and Range of Dates. Therefore many people, including myself, prefer to avoid the strange names and just use terms like Number Range and Data Range.

A more sophisticated Range can be set with a sort criteria. In general this can be any function that's capable of ranking instances of the type that's being used in the range. The sort criteria is essentially a function, or an object that wraps a function.

You'll probably have some open ended ranges (eg greater than six). You can handle this a couple of ways. One is to treat a null value as meaning unlimited. Your range checking code will get a bit more complicated, but pretty much you can hide this from your users. Another alternative is to make a Special Case for the extremes (e.g. positive infinity). Whichever choice you make you can hide from users of the class by having creation methods of the form Range.greaterThan(6).

If the type you are ranging over is continuous (eg a real number) as opposed to discrete (like an integer or date) you'll need other information to tell if the upper or lower are within the range. With integers you can choose a range greater than six by setting the lower to seven. However with a real number you don't want to be using a lower of 6.0000000000001. Use a couple of boolean markers instead.

As well as operations that test if a value is in a range, you can also include operations that compare ranges: these can tell if one range overlaps another, if one range touches another, or one range includes another. These can be very helpful when you need to do things like check that some subset of ranges includes all values in another range.

Range classes obviously suit themselves to parameterized classes, if your language uses them. If not you are faced with either building them based on an abstract class or creating specialized subtypes for specific cases. If you are likely to be getting the upper and lower values for other purposes, then the pain of downcasting will be enough that you'd be better off making a concrete range class.

When thinking about ranges, I find the most common approach is to have a start and an end. However it's equally useful to have a start and a length, or even an end and length. You can also have all three: start, end, and length with the obvious constraint between the values.

When to Use It

Range is a pattern I use all the time. Coding an appropriate range class is easy, and once you've done that it's easier to use a range than to use pairs of values. When modeling it's more explicit to use ranges than to use pairs - and just as intuitive.

Example: Date Range (Java)

For an example I'll use a date range. It's a common range to need to use, and allows me to neatly dodge the extra complexities of a continuous range. Rather than using Java's standard date, I'm using my own date class that only has date precision (see the discussion in Time Point.

The basic constructors and accessors are quite simple.

class DateRange...

  public DateRange (Date start, Date end) {
    this (new MfDate(start), new MfDate(end));
  public DateRange (MfDate start, MfDate end) {
    this.start = start;
    this.end = end;

class DateRange...

  public MfDate end(){
    return end;
  public MfDate start() {
    return start;
  public String toString() {
    if (isEmpty()) return "Empty Date Range";
    return start.toString() + " - " + end.toString();
  public boolean isEmpty() {
    return start.after(end);

The key method to provide in any use of Range is the includes method.

class DateRange...

  public boolean includes (MfDate arg) {
    return !arg.before(start) && !arg.after(end);

I like to provide extra constructors for open-ended ranges and the empty range.

class DateRange...

  public static DateRange upTo(MfDate end) {
    return new DateRange(MfDate.PAST, end);
  public static DateRange startingOn(MfDate start) {
    return new DateRange(start, MfDate.FUTURE);
  public static DateRange EMPTY = new DateRange(new MfDate(2000,4,1), new MfDate(2000,1,1));

It's useful to provide operations which allow you to compare ranges.

class DateRange...

  public boolean equals (Object arg) {
    if (! (arg instanceof DateRange)) return false;
    DateRange other = (DateRange) arg;
    return start.equals(other.start) && end.equals(other.end);
  public int hashCode() {
    return start.hashCode();
  public boolean overlaps(DateRange arg) {
     return arg.includes(start) || arg.includes(end) || this.includes(arg);
  public boolean includes(DateRange arg) {
    return this.includes(arg.start) && this.includes(arg.end);

For most applications this is all you need. But certain situations suggest other useful behaviors. One it to find out what gap exists between two ranges.

class DateRange...

  public DateRange gap(DateRange arg){
    if (this.overlaps(arg)) return DateRange.EMPTY;
    DateRange lower, higher;
    if (this.compareTo(arg) < 0) {
      lower = this;
      higher = arg;
    else {
      lower = arg;
      higher = this;
    return new DateRange(lower.end.addDays(1), higher.start.addDays(-1));
  public int compareTo(Object arg) {
    DateRange other = (DateRange) arg;
    if (!start.equals(other.start)) return start.compareTo(other.start);
    return end.compareTo(other.end);

Another is to detect whether two date ranges abut each other.

class DateRange...

  public boolean abuts(DateRange arg) {
    return !this.overlaps(arg) && this.gap(arg).isEmpty();

And to see if a group of ranges completly partitions another range.

class DateRange...

  public boolean partitionedBy(DateRange[] args) {
    if (!isContiguous(args)) return false;
    return this.equals(DateRange.combination(args));
  public static DateRange combination(DateRange[] args) {
    if (!isContiguous(args)) throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unable to combine date ranges");
    return new DateRange(args[0].start, args[args.length -1].end);
  public static boolean isContiguous(DateRange[] args) {
    for (int i=0; i<args.length - 1; i++) {
        if (!args[i].abuts(args[i+1])) return false;
    return true;